Shark with a long snout, large eyes and 4-spiked pitchforked shaped dermal denticles
The Longsnout dogfish (Deania quadrispinosa) is a little-known deepwater shark belonging to the family Centrophoridae. They range in grey to blackish in color and are quite small with a spotty distribution.
Family: Centrophoridae – Gulper Sharks
Common Name– Dogfish Sharks
Common Name– Gulpher Sharks
Status: IUCN Red List NEAR THREATENED
Average Size and Length: Adult males average are 2.9 feet, and adult females average 3.6 feet. The longest recorded is 3.7 feet.
Teeth and Jaw: There are compressed cutting teeth in both jaws, but the upper and lower teeth differ. The lower teeth are much bigger, broad and hooked slightly to a point. The upper teeth are much smaller, pointier and more come to a curved-hooked point.
Head: The snout is long and flat. The eyes are large.
Denticles: The dermal denticles are four-spine, pitchforked-shaped. They are large at .75mm long.
Tail: There is no subcaudal keel beneath the caudal peduncle.
Demographic, Distribution, Habitat, Environment and Range: The Longsnout dogfish can be found in southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the west Pacific Islands. They can be found over the outer continental shelf and slope between 492-4,462 feet, but typically prefer to stay below 1,312 feet. They are considered bathydemersal.
Diet: They prefer to eat bony fish.
Aesthetic Identification: The Longsnout dogfish ranges from grey to grey brown to blackish in color. Sometimes the edge of their fins are white. Juveniles have a dark blotch near the leading edge of the dorsal fin. The first dorsal fin is high, angular and short. The second dorsal fin is high, angular and taller with a higher fin spine. There is no anal fin.
Biology and Reproduction: The Longsnout dogfish is ovoviviparous. Litter size is thought to be between 5 and 17, but this is unconfirmed.
Behavioral Traits, Sensing and Intelligence: Unknown.
Longsnout Dogfish Future and Conservation: They are discarded as bycatch by fisheries. Populations of this shark have decreased by over 80% in some regions of Australia. Around the world they’re down by almost 30%.
Longsnout Dogfish Recorded Attacks on Humans: Not a threat to humans.