The Heterodontiformes, or common name Bullhead sharks are a small order of fairly modern sharks. They are uncommon, unique and rare. There are 9 (possibly 10) living species, which are placed in a single genus, Heterodontus, in the family Heterodontidae (also common name Bullhead sharks). All of them are relatively small, with the largest species reaching a maximum length of just 5.5 feet. They are bottom feeders in tropical and subtropical waters.
The Heterodontiforms are an ancient order which appear in the fossil record as far back as the early Mesozoic era, well before any of the other Galeomorphii, a group that includes all modern sharks except the dogfish and its relatives. However, they have never been common, and their origin probably lies even further back.
Bullhead sharks are distinctive. They all have blunt, pig-like snouts. The small mouth is located anterior to the orbits, and labial cartilages are found in the most anterior part of the mouth. Nasal grooves are present, connecting the external nares to the mouth. The nasal capsules are trumpet-shaped and well-separated from orbits. Skin folds are present. The eyes lack a nictitating membrane. A spiracle is present, but small. Heterodontiforms have two dorsal fins, with fin spines, as well as an anal fin. The dorsal and anal fins also contain basal cartilages, not just fin rays. Bullhead Sharks have distinctive small spikes on the front of their dorsal fins. These are rumored to be poisonous, but no further scientific tests have been completed to prove this hypothesis true or false. They have rough skin, and paddle-like paired fins.
Bullhead sharks have different teeth. The front teeth are smaller gripping teeth, and the back blunt teeth for crushing. They mostly feed on benthic invertebrates.
Bullhead sharks are benthic sharks that are slow, sluggish sharks mostly active at night. Some even crawl over rocky and kelp-covered bottoms. Bullhead sharks are oviparous with extremely unique corkscrew shaped egg cases that can be wedged securely between rocks and crevices. The eggs hatch approximately 5 months later.
Heterodontidae: Bullhead Sharks (J. E. Gray, 1851).
Crested Bullhead Shark Heterodontus galeatus (Günther, 1870)
Cryptic Hornshark Heterodontus sp. X (J. I. Castro)
Galapagos Bullhead Shark Heterodontus quoyi (Fréminville, 1840)
Horn Shark Heterodontus francisci (Girard, 1855)
Japanese Bullhead Shark Heterodontus japonicus (Maclay & W. J. Macleay, 1884)
Mexican Hornshark Heterodontus mexicanus (L. R. Taylor & Castro-Aguirre, 1972)
Oman Bullhead Shark Heterodontus omanensis (Z. H. Baldwin, 2005)
Port Jackson Shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni (F. A. A. Meyer, 1793)
Whitespotted Bullhead Shark Heterodontus ramalheira (J. L. B. Smith, 1949)