A small spurdog with vivid green eyes

The Greeneye spurdog (Squalus chloroculus) is a dogfish that was first described in 2007. It is a member of the family Squalidae, found off the coast of Australia and possibly New Zealand. The length of the longest specimen measured is 2.8 feet.


Family: Squalidae – Dogfish Sharks

Genus: Squalus 

Species: chloroculus


Phylum– Chordata

Class– Chondrichthyles



Common NameDogfish Sharks

Family– Squalidae

Common NameDogfish Sharks




Average Size and Length: The longest measured was 2.8 feet.

Teeth and Jaw: The teeth of the Greeneye spurdog are blade-like and similar in both the upper and lower jaws.

Head: The Greeneye spurdog has a broad, pointed snout. The eyes are fairly medium to large, closer to the snout tip than the first gill slit. Like its name, they do appear green in color when alive.

Tail: There is a conspicuous dark marginal bar above the posterior notch of the caudal fin.

Demographic, Distribution, Habitat, Environment and Range: The Greeneye spurdog is endemic to southern Australia from Ulladulla, New South Wales to the Great Australian Bight. There are some thoughts that they could even range to New Zealand, but this isn’t confirmed. They are bathydemersal, typically found between depths of 709-4,462 feet.

Aesthetic Identification: The Greeneye spurdog is smaller in size. It is grey on the dorsal surface and pale on the ventral side. It has a small second dorsal fin. This first dorsal fin spine smaller than the second dorsal fin spine.

Biology and Reproduction: The Greeneye spurdog is ovoviviparous. Males mature at 2.2 feet. B. E. A. Rochowski, K. J. Graham, R. W. Day, and T. I. Walker studied their reproduction and published their findings in January 2015 (Reproductive biology of the greeneye spurdog Squalus chloroculus (Squaliformes, Squalidae). This study was based on animals caught in the multispecies and multi-gear southern and eastern scalefish and shark fishery on the upper continental slope off southern Australia.

Behavioral Traits, Sensing and Intelligence: Unknown.

Greeneye Spurdog Future and Conservation: Based on its limited range, the Greeneye spurdog is near threatened. The Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA) has implemented fishing regulations. In 2003, fishing vessels were required to have both the carcass and liver of dogfish and those catches were recorded. In 2007, SESS Fishery closed fishing below 700 m (2,297 feet) to prevent targeted fishing for deepwater species.

Greeneye Spurdog Recorded Attacks on Humans: Not a threat to humans.