SQUALIDAE DOGFISH SHARKS
Common Name– Dogfish Sharks
The Squalidae, or common English name Dogfish sharks are a family of sharks in the order Squaliformes. They have two dorsal fins, each with smooth, un-grooved spines, but no anal fin. The pelvic fins are smaller than the pectoral fins. The caudal peduncle has strong lateral keels and the caudal fin does not have a subterminal notch. Both genus belonging to this family have several slight aesthetic differences.
Their skin is generally rough to the touch. Unlike just about all other shark species, Dogfish sharks possess venom which coats their dorsal spines – this venom is mildly toxic to humans.
Dogfish sharks are characterized by teeth in upper and lower jaws similar in size; a caudal peduncle with lateral keels; the upper precaudal pit usually is present; and the caudal fin is without a subterminal notch. The livers and stomachs of the Squalidae contain the compound squalamine, which possesses the property of reduction of small blood vessel growth in humans; however, real-use treatments for cancer currently failed a phase III trail in 2018.
Dogfish sharks can be found worldwide in temperate, boreal and tropical seas. Some species occur from intertidal zone down to deep depths. Some species may also occur solitary and others in groups. Squalidae are ovoviviparous.
There are 3 currently known species in the genus Cirrhigaleus and 27 currently known species evaluated here in the genus Squalus.
Bartail Spurdog– Squalus notocaudatus (previously sp. A)
Bighead Spurdog– Squalus bucephalus
Blacktail Spurdog– Squalus melanurus
Bluntnose Spiny Dogfish– Squalus acutipinnis
Chinese Longnose Dogfish– Squalus acutirostris
Cuban Dogfish– Squalus cubensis
Cyrano Spurdog– Squalus rancureli
Eastern Highfin Spurdog– Squalus albifrons (previous sp. B)
Eastern Longnose Spurdog– Squalus grahami (previously sp. F)
Edmund’s Spurdog– Squalus edmundsi
Fatspine Spurdog– Squalus crassispinus (previously sp. D)
Greeneye Spurdog– Squalus chloroculus
Indonesian Shortsnout Spurdog– Squalus hemipinnis
Japanese Shortnose Spurdog– Squalus brevirostris
Japanese Spurdog– Squalus japonicus
Kermadec Spiny Dogfish– Squalus raoulensis
Longnose Spurdog– Squalus blainville
Mandarin Dogfish– Cirrhigaleus barbifer
Northern Spiny Dogfish– Squalus griffini
Pacific Spiny Dogfish– Squalus suckleyi
Philippine Spurdog– Squalus montalbani
Piked Dogfish or Spiny Dogfish– Squalus acanthias
Roughskin Spurdog– Cirrhigaleus asper
Seychelles Spurdog– Squalus lalannei
Shortnose Spurdog– Squalus megalops
Shortspine Spurdog– Squalus mitsukurii
Southern Mandarin Dogfish– Cirrhigaleus australis
Taiwan Spurdog– Squalus formosus
Western Highfin Spurdog– Squalus altipinnis (previous sp. C)
Western Longnose Spurdog– Squalus nasutus (previously sp. E)